Included in this list are primary and secondary sources available online, as well as websites featuring sources related to Danvers, Salem Village, and 1692. This list is continually updated.
Salem Village (1672-1752)
Chu, Jonathan M. “Nursing A Poisonous Tree: Litigation and Property Law in Seventeenth-Century Essex County, Massachusetts The Case of Bishop’s Farm.” The American Journal of Legal History 31, no. 3 (July 1987): 221–52. https://doi.org/10.2307/845691.
Salem Village Church Record Book, high-quality scans of the pages from Rev. Parris’ tenure (1689-1696) at the Danvers Archives site:
Salem Village Church Record Book, transcriptions from Rev. Green’s tenure (1697-1750)
Parris, Samuel. The Sermon Notebook of Samuel Parris, 1689–1694. Edited by James F. Cooper, Jr. and Kenneth P. Minkema. Publications of The Colonial Society of Massachusetts 66. Boston: The Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 1993. https://www.colonialsociety.org/node/1188#dlheads01.
Danvers, Mass. (1752-)
-For articles on many Danvers history topics, see the Historical Collections of the Danvers Historical Society. Many volumes are available online through this link, while all volumes are available at the Danvers Archival Center. Most recent volumes can also be purchased at the Danvers Historical Society.
-For original records, documents, and many secondary sources see the collection of the Danvers Archival Center, Peabody Institute Library: https://www.danverslibrary.org/archive/
Abbott, Katharine M. Old Paths and Legends of New England : Saunterings over Historic Roads, with Glimpses of Picturesque Fields and Old Homesteads in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire. New York: Knickerbocker Press, 1908. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011596808.
Albree, John, ed. Whittier Correspondence from the Oak Knoll Collection, 1830-1892. Salem, Mass.: Essex Print and Book Club, 1911. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001692833.
Bolton, Charles Knowles. The Elizabeth Whitman Mystery at the Old Bell Tavern in Danvers: A Study of “Eliza Wharton,” the Heroine of a Famous New England Romance. Peabody, Mass.: Peabody Historical Society, 1912. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008728939.
Danvers, Town of. The Celebration of the One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Establishment of the Town of Danvers, Massachusetts, as a Separate Municipality. Boston: Fort Hill Press, 1907. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/010028473
Danvers, Town of. Report of the Committee Appointed to Revise the Soldiers’ Records. Danvers, Mass.: Town of Danvers, 1895. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008587282.
Endicott, Charles Moses. Account of Leslie’s Retreat at the North Bridge in Salem, on Sunday Feb’y 26, 1775. Salem, Mass.: W. Ives & G.W. Pease, 1856. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/011604820.
A Farmer in the State of the Massachusetts-Bay. Some Remarks on the Great and Unusual Darkness, That Appeared on Friday, May 19, 1780. Danvers, Mass.: E. Russell, 1780. https://archive.org/details/SomeRemarksOnTheGreatAndUnusualDarknessThatAppearedOnFridayMay.
First Church of Danvers Congregational. Church Record Book Belonging to Salem Village, 1689-1848. http://nehh-viewer.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/#/content/Danvers/viewer/Church20records2C2016891845/33.
First Church of Danvers Congregational. Exercises in Celebration of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the First Church, Congregational, Danvers, Massachusetts, October 8th to 15th, 1922, with an Address at the Centennial of the Sunday School, November 17th, 1918. Salem, Mass., 1925. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100336230.
Fletcher, James W. “Residents Invited to Founder’s Day.” Danvers Herald. June 8, 2007. http://danvers.wickedlocal.com/article/20070608/NEWS/306089758.
Forman, Ethan. “Facing Death, Witch Trials Victim Spoke Truth to Injustice.” Salem News. July 19, 2017. http://www.salemnews.com/news/facing-death-witch-trials-victim-spoke-truth-to-injustice/article_3dcd88a4-6cf4-11e7-a115-4b5b9d02a8a3.html.
Frothingham, Richard. History of the Siege of Boston, and of the Battles of Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill: Also, an Account of the Bunker Hill Monument, with Illustrative Documents. 6th ed. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1896. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100319922.
Hill, Benjamin D., and Winfield S. Nevins. The North Shore of Massachusetts Bay: An Illustrated Guide to Marblehead, Salem, Peabody, Beverly, Manchester-by-the-Sea, Magnolia, Gloucester, Rockport, and Ipswich. 4th ed. Salem, Mass., 1881. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009561706.
Industrial And Mercantile Peabody & Danvers Illustrated 1909. R. J. Lawton, 1909. https://archive.org/details/IndustrialAndMercantilePeabodyDanversIllustrated1909.
King, Daniel P. An Address Commemorative of Seven Young Men of Danvers, Who Were Slain in the Battle of Lexington; Delivered in the Old South Meeting House, in Danvers, on the Sixtieth Anniversary of the Battle. Salem, Mass.: W. & S.B. Ives, 1835. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100734025.
Luca, Dustin. “Salem, Danvers Ceremonies to Honor Witch Trials Victims.” Salem News. Accessed March 4, 2018. http://www.salemnews.com/news/local_news/salem-danvers-ceremonies-to-honor-witch-trials-victims/article_4b9280d7-a39e-5663-8c3d-767d03c3f411.html.
Moore, Carolyn. “Family Returns to Rebecca Nurse Homestead.” Danvers Herald. September 25, 2007. http://danvers.wickedlocal.com/article/20070925/NEWS/309259602.
Moynahan, Frank E. Danvers, Massachusetts: A Resume of Her Past History and Future Progress. Danvers, Mass.: The Danvers Mirror, 1899. https://archive.org/details/danversmassachus00moyna/page/n3.
Osgood, George. Historical Sketch of School District Number Thirteen, North Danvers: Or as It Is Known Abroad, Danvers Plains, or by Its Ancient Name, Porter’s Plains, to Distinguish It from Shillaber’s Plains, South Danvers. Salem, Mass., 1855. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/008587152.
Putnam, Eben. Soldiers in the French War from Essex County, 1755-1761; Militia Officers, Essex Co., Mass., 1761-1771; Danvers Tax List, 1775, District Covered by Amos Trask, Collector. Historical Collections of the Essex Institute, 1892. https://archive.org/details/soldiersinfrench00putn/page/n5.
Salem, Beverly, Danvers, and Peabody: Their Representative Business Men and Points of Interest. New York: Mercantile Illustrating Company, 1893. https://archive.org/details/salembeverlydanv00merc/page/n5.
Stark, James Henry. The Loyalists of Massachusetts and the Other Side of the American Revolution. Boston: James H. Stark, 1910. https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Loyalists_of_Massachusetts_and_the_O.html?id=_lR2AAAAMAAJ.
Tapley, Harriet S. Chronicles of Danvers (Old Salem Village), Massachusetts, 1632-1923. Danvers, Mass.: The Danvers Historical Society, 1923. https://archive.org/details/chroniclesofdanv00tapl.
Trask, Richard B. “Letter: Danvers Educator Helped Shine Light on Origins of Witchcraft Hysteria.” Salem News. April 27, 2010, sec. Opinion. http://www.salemnews.com/opinion/letter-danvers-educator-helped-shine-light-on-origins-of-witchcraft/article_b45a1f10-0448-5491-838f-83f5d8fffd1e.html.
Trask, Richard B. “The Creation of Danvers.” Danvers Archival Center at the Peabody Institute Library, August 2013. http://www.danverslibrary.org/archive/?page_id=211.
“Rebecca Nurse; Reunion of the Descendants of a Victim of the Witchcraft Delusion.” New York Times, July 21, 1883. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1883/07/21/102949018.pdf
Vital Records of Danvers, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849. 2 vols. Salem, Mass.: The Essex Institute, 1909-1910. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100382191.
(Volume I: Births, Volume II: Marriages and Deaths)
Wadsworth, Benjamin. A Discourse Delivered Jan. 5, 1816, in the Brick Meeting House in Danvers, at the Interment of the Honorable Samuel Holten. Andover, Mass.: Flagg and Gould, 1816. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009562321.
Webber, C. H., and W. S. Nevins. Old Naumkeag: An Historical Sketch of the City of Salem, and the Towns of Marblehead, Peabody, Beverly, Danvers, Wenham, Manchester, Topsfield, and Middleton. Salem, Mass.: A. A. Smith and Company, 1877. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/100735382.
Wheatland, Henry, ed. Baptisms at Church in Salem Village, Now North Parish, Danvers. Salem, Mass.: The Essex Institute, 1880. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009596393.
Woodman, Abby J. Reminiscences of John Greenleaf Whittier’s Life at Oak Knoll, Danvers, Mass. Salem, Mass.: The Essex Institute, 1908. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/007677070.
“Worthy Witch Memorial.” The New York Times, July 31, 1892. https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1892/07/31/104141987.pdf
General 1692-Related Resources
Baker, Emerson W. “Gallows Hill Project.” Emerson W. Baker, History Dept., Salem State University, January 11, 2016. http://w3.salemstate.edu/~ebaker/Gallows_Hill#pressrelease.
Blumberg, Jess. “A Brief History of the Salem Witch Trials.” Smithsonian. Accessed March 4, 2018. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-brief-history-of-the-salem-witch-trials-175162489/.
Butterfield, Fox. “The Witches of Salem Get a New Hearing.” The New York Times, October 28, 1984, National edition, sec. Arts. https://www.nytimes.com/1984/10/28/arts/television-the-witches-of-salem-get-a-new-hearing.html.
Calef, Robert. More Wonders of the Invisible World, Display’d in Five Parts. London: Nathaniel Hillar, 1700. http://salem.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/calef/calef.html.
Calta, Marialisa. “Salem Remembers, 300 Years Later.” The New York Times, May 10, 1992, sec. Travel. http://www.nytimes.com/1992/05/10/travel/salem-remembers-300-years-later.html.
Commonwealth of Massachusetts. “About the Supreme Judicial Court.” Massachusetts Court System, 2018. https://www.mass.gov/service-details/about-the-supreme-judicial-court.
Dean, Michelle. “Why the Salem Witch Trials Still Haunt the American Imagination.” the Guardian, October 30, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/books/2015/oct/30/salem-witch-trials-american-imagination
Dimon, Laura. “What Witchcraft Is Facebook?” The Atlantic, September 11, 2013. https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/09/what-witchcraft-is-facebook/279499
Driskill, Gail. “Salem Sites Recall Horror of Witch Trials.” NewsOK.com, February 9, 1992. http://newsok.com/salem-sites-recall-horror-of-witch-trials/article/2384421.
First Church of Salem Record Book
General Court of Massachusetts, “AN ACT RELATIVE TO THE WITCHCRAFT TRIAL OF 1692,” § Chapter 122 (2001), https://malegislature.gov/Laws/SessionLaws/Acts/2001/Chapter122.
(Act finally clearing the names of the remaining victims of 1692)
Hemphill, C. Dallett. “Women in Court: Sex-Role Differentiation in Salem, Massachusetts, 1636 to 1683.” The William and Mary Quarterly 39, no. 1 (January 1982): 164–75. https://doi.org/10.2307/1923422.
Hubbard, Edwin. The Towne Family Memorial. Chicago: Fergus Printing Company, 1880. https://archive.org/details/townefamilymemor00hubb/page/n5.
Lawson, Deodat. A Brief and True Narrative of Some Remarkable Passages Relating to Sundry Persons Afflicted by WItchcraft at Salem Village. Boston: Benjamin Harris, 1692. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044010601938;view=1up;seq=3.
Louie, Elaine. “CURRENTS; Lest Terror Be Forgotten.” The New York Times, January 9, 1992, sec. Home & Garden. https://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/09/garden/currents-lest-terror-be-forgotten.html.
Mather, Cotton. Ornaments for the Daughters of Zion. Or The Character and Happiness of a Vertuous Woman: In a Discourse Which Directs the Female-Sex How to Express, the Fear of God, in Every Age and State of Their Life; and Obtain Both Temporal and Eternal Blessedness. Boston: Samuel Phillips, 1692. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/evans/N00500.0001.001?rgn=main;view=fulltext.
Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana; or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, from Its First Planting in the Year 1620, unto the Year of Our Lord, 1698. London: Printed for T. Parkhurst, 1702. http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=witch;idno=wit112.
Mather, Cotton. Diary of Cotton Mather, 1681-1708. Edited by Worthington Chauncy Ford. Vol. 7. Massachusetts Historical Society Collections 7th. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1911. https://ia800202.us.archive.org/11/items/cu31924092202500/cu31924092202500.pdf.
Mather, Increase. Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits Personating Men, Witchcrafts, Infallible Proofs of Guilt in Such as Are Accused with That Crime. Boston: Benjamin Harris, 1693. http://salem.lib.virginia.edu/speccol/mather/mather.html.
Mather, Increase. “Recantation of Confessors of Witchcraft.” Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd ser., 3 (1815): 221–25. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076467420;view=1up;seq=7.
Maule, Thomas. Truth Held Forth and Maintained According to the Testimony of the Holy Prophets, Christ and His Apostles Recorded in the Holy Scriptures. New York: William Bradford, 1695. http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=witch;idno=wit126.
Maule, Thomas. New-England Pesecutors [Sic] Mauled With Their Own Weapons. New York: William Bradford, 1697. http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=witch;idno=wit123.
Mehren, Elizabeth. “The Trials of Being a Witch : Lifestyles: Salem Is about to Commemorate the 300th Anniversary of One of Its Darker Chapters, but Has Not Asked a Witch to Join in. Trouble Is Brewing.” Los Angeles Times, October 31, 1991. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-10-31/news/vw-759_1_salem-witch-trials/2.
Miller, Arthur. “Journey to ‘The Crucible’; Visit to Salem Recalled by the Author of The New Play.” New York Times, February 8, 1953, New York edition. http://movies2.nytimes.com/books/00/11/12/specials/miller-journey53.html.
Nevins, Winfield S. Witchcraft in Salem Village in 1692: Together With Some Account of Other Witchcraft Prosecutions In New England and Elsewhere. Salem, Mass.: North Shore Publishing Company, 1892. https://archive.org/details/witchcraftinsale00neviuoft/page/n3.
Nevins, Winfield S. “Stories of Salem Witchcraft.” New England Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly new ser. 6, no. 1 (March 1892): 36–48. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101064987975;view=1up;seq=5.
Quinn, Garrett. “The Complicated History of the Death Penalty in Massachusetts, from the Salem Witch Trials to Dzhokhar Tsarnaev.” masslive.com. Accessed February 28, 2018. http://www.masslive.com/news/boston/index.ssf/2014/02/history_of_the_death_penalty_i.html.
Rezac, Mary. “Was the Last ‘witch’ of Boston Actually a Catholic Martyr?” Catholic News Agency. Accessed January 6, 2018. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/was-the-last-witch-of-boston-actually-a-catholic-martyr-27747/.
The Great and General Court of Her Majesty’s Province of Massachusetts Bay. “An Act to Reverse the Attainders of George Burroughs and Others. 1711.” Governor and Council of Massachusetts Bay, 1711. Portfolio 33, Folder 40. Librry of Congress Printed Ephemera Collection. https://www.loc.gov/resource/rbpe.03304000/?sp=1.
Willard, Samuel. Some Miscellany Observations on Our Present Debates Respecting Witchcrafts, in a Dialogue between S. and B. By P. E. and J. A. Philadelphia: William Bradford for Hezekiah Usher, 1692. http://salem.lib.virginia.edu/texts/willard/index.html.
“Massachusetts Clears 5 From Salem Witch Trials.” The New York Times, November 2, 2001, sec. U.S. https://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/02/us/massachusetts-clears-5-from-salem-witch-trials.html.
“The Salem Witchcraft Trials.” Massachusetts Law Updates (blog), October 27, 2015. https://blog.mass.gov/masslawlib/legal-history/the-salem-witchcraft-trials/.
“Witchcraft Law up to the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692.” Massachusetts Law Updates (blog), October 31, 2017. https://blog.mass.gov/masslawlib/civil-procedure/witchcraft-law-up-to-the-salem-witchraft-trials-of-1692/.
“5 Killed in Salem Witch Hunt Remembered on 325th Anniversary.” Accessed March 5, 2018. http://www.apnewsarchive.com/2017/5_killed_in_Salem_witch_hunt_remembered_on_325th_anniversary/id-fdc9669b8ecf48918758f5463d653b64.
“Salem Selling a Dubious Past.” WIRED. Accessed March 5, 2018. https://www.wired.com/2003/11/salem-selling-a-dubious-past/.
“‘The Dreams in the Witch House’ by H. P. Lovecraft.” Accessed March 15, 2018. http://www.hplovecraft.com/writings/texts/fiction/dwh.aspx.
“The Lesson Of Salem.” Newsweek, August 30, 1992. http://www.newsweek.com/lesson-salem-197968.
“Witchcraft.” UK Parliament. Accessed August 24, 2017. http://www.parliament.uk/about/living-heritage/transformingsociety/private-lives/religion/overview/witchcraft/.
Other Websites With 1692 Resources:
-Salem Witch Trials UVA Site
-Danvers Archival Center
-U of Chicago: Salem Witch Trials Legal Bibliography
-Tulane 1692 Site
Colonial Greater Salem Area and Massachusetts
Axtell, James. “The Vengeful Women of Marblehead: Robert Roules’s Deposition of 1677.” The William and Mary Quarterly 31, no. 4 (October 1974): 647–52. https://doi.org/10.2307/1921608.
Benton, Josiah Henry. The Story of the Old Boston Town House, 1658-1711. Boston, 1908. https://ia801408.us.archive.org/27/items/storyofoldboston00bent/storyofoldboston00bent_bw.pdf.
Bonner, John. “The Town of Boston in New England by Capt. John Bonner, 1722.” Boston: George G. Smith, 1835. MHS Collections Online. http://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=1733&img_step=1&mode=small.
Burgiss, William. “To His Excellency William Burnet, Esqr., This Plan of Boston in New England Is Humbly Dedicated by His Excellencys Most Obedient and Humble Servant Will Burgiss.” Boston, 1728. Library of Congress Geography and Map Division. https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3764b.ct003495/.
Caller, James M., and M. A. Ober. Geneology of the Descendants of Lawrence and Cassandra Southwick of Salem, Mass. Salem, Mass.: J.H. Choate, 1881. https://archive.org/details/genealogyofdesce00call/page/n7.
Clough, Samuel C. “Map of the Town of Boston, 1676.” Boston, 1920. MHS Collections Online. https://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=1737&img_step=1&br=1&mode=zoomify#page1.
De Costa, J. “A Plan of the Town and Harbour of Boston and the Country Adjacent with the Road from Boston to Concord, Shewing the Place of the Late Engagement between the King’s Troops & the Provincials, Together with the Several Encampments of Both Armies in & about Boston. Taken from an Actual Survey.” 1:120,000. London, 1775. https://www.loc.gov/resource/g3764b.ar090000/?r=-0.278,0.044,1.813,0.897,0.
Earle, Alice Morse. “Old-Time Marriage Customs in New England.” The Journal of American Folklore 6, no. 21 (June 1893): 97–102. https://doi.org/10.2307/533294.
General Court of Massachusetts, The Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay (Boston: T.B. Wait and Co., 1814), https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/009710032.
Higginson, Francis. New-Englands Plantation. 1630. Reprint, Salem, Mass.: The Essex Book and Print Club, 1908. https://archive.org/stream/newenglandsplant00higgrich#page/n9/mode/2up.
Hotten, John Camden, ed. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality; Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. London: John Camden Hotten, 1874. https://archive.org/details/originallistsofp00hottuoft/page/n5.
Howe, Daniel Wait. The Puritan Republic of Massachusetts Bay in New England. Indianapolis: Bowen-Merrill Company, 1899. https://archive.org/details/puritanrepublico00howe/page/n7.
Hutchinson, Thomas. The History of the Province of Massachusetts-Bay. 3 vols. Boston: Thomas and John Fleet, 1765. https://catalog.hathitrust.org/Record/001261893.
Johnson, Edward. Wonder-Working Providence of Sion’s Saviour in New-England. Edited by J. Franklin Jameson. 1654. Reprint, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910. https://ia600208.us.archive.org/10/items/cu31924028814452/cu31924028814452.pdf.
Savage, James. A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Showing Three Generations of Those Who Came before May, 1692, on the Basis of Farmer’s Register. Vol. 3. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1861. https://ia802609.us.archive.org/4/items/genealogicaldic03savarich/genealogicaldic03savarich_bw.pdf.
Savage, James. A Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England Showing Three Generations of Those Who Came before May, 1692, on the Basis of Farmer’s Register. Vol. 4. Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1862. https://archive.org/details/genealogicaldic04savarich.
Scudder, Horace E. “Life in Boston in the Colonial Period.” In The Memorial History of Boston, Including Suffolk County, Massachusetts, 1630-1880, edited by Justin Winsor, 1:481–520. Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1880. https://ia601608.us.archive.org/12/items/memorialhistoryo00wins_0/memorialhistoryo00wins_0.pdf.
Seitz, Trina N. “A History of Execution Methods in the United States.” In Handbook of Death and Dying, edited by Clifton D. Bryant, 1:357–67. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2003. https://books.google.com/books?id=3z9EpgisKOgC&pg=PA357&dq=historical+execution+methods&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwihnKzmtIXaAhVJTd8KHTN1B8MQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=historical%20execution%20methods&f=false.
Sewall, Samuel. The Selling of Joseph: A Memorial. Boston: Bartholomew Green and John Allen, 1700. https://www.masshist.org/database/viewer.php?item_id=53.
Sewall, Samuel. Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729. Vol. 5. Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society 5. Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society, 1878. https://books.google.com/books?id=KdM6AQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=sewall+diary&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjYj-rAuefYAhUSCawKHVdAAwYQ6AEIKTAA#v=onepage&q=sewall%20diary&f=false.
Winthrop, John. “Model of Christian Charity.” In Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Vol. 7. 3. Boston: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1838. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=njp.32101076467495;view=1up;seq=39.